ALRDC Technical Library

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Advances in Dynamometer Technology
by: O. Lynn Rowlan, James N. McCoy, A.L. Podio — Added 6/13/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


Dynamometer testing of sucker rod lifted wells is performed routinely in a safe and efficient manner throughout the world. Advances in dynamometer and computer technology have led to more accurate measurement of force and position at the surface and calculation of loads along the rod string and at the pump. Using an accelerometer to accurately detect sudden small movements of the polished rod gives a detailed picture of the changing conditions throughout the pumping cycle. Combining the measurement of acceleration with high-speed acquisition of precision load results in display of load spikes that are not usually seen in conventional dynamometers that use position indicators and low sensitivity electronics. Improvement of the polished rod transducer calibration technique has resulted in acquiring dynamometer load measurements equal to the accuracy of precision strain gage load cells. The field examples presented here suggest that the sampling frequency and sensitivity of convention

An Analysis of Common Sucker Rod Pumping Failures and Practical Solutions to Prevent Reoccurrence
by: Mark W. Mahoney — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


This paper will focus primarily on damage to sucker rod pumps and other parts of the sucker rod pumping system due to common mistakes in operation procedures and operating conditions. A review of actual damaged materials and the operating parameters leading to the root cause of the failures will be presented as well as the solutions that were implemented to solve the problems.

Analyses of Laboratory, Instrumented Sucker-Rod Pump Data
by: A. J. (Chip) Mansure, A. L. Podio, Jaime Gomez, Benny J. Williams, Mark W. Mahoney — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


A full-scale, laboratory, instrumented sucker-rod pump has been constructed to aid in designing a downhole, instrumented pump. The laboratory pump has demonstrated that key to understanding of sucker-rod pumping is compression-chamber pressure. Laboratory data will be used to demonstrate real-time analysis techniques that will be used with the downhole, instrumented pump to differentiate between a gas-locked or a pumped-off well using compression-chamber pressure. For a gas-locked well, the pressure is symmetric between the upstroke and downstroke, whereas for a pumped-off well there are high and low pressure plateaus when the valves are open. A method will be demonstrated to determine sucker-rod pump fillage by cross plotting versus stroke (? is the heat capacity ratio). The intercept of the compression line and stroke gives pump fillage. The intersection of decompression and discharge pressure gives the residual gas trapped between the standing and traveling valves at the end

DYNAMOMETER ANALYSIS PLOTS IMPROVE ABILITY TO TROUBLESHOOT AND ANALYZE PROBLEMS
by: A.L Podio, O. Lynn Rowlan, Jim McCoy, Dieter Becker — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


Dynamometer Analysis Plots allow the graphic display of various parameters, both acquired and calculated, during a complete pumping unit stroke. At a user specified time frequency polished rod load, polished acceleration, motor power, and motor Amps data is acquired. Using the descriptive well information and pumping unit geometry many other parameters are calculated, such as pump load, polished rod position, polished rod velocity, pump plunger position, pump plunger velocity, existing mechanical and electrical net gearbox torque, instantaneous SPM, and motor RPM. These calculated and acquired dynamometer parameters can be plotted in any combination against each other versus any of the four horizontal axis parameters: polished rod position, plunger position, elapsed time, or crank angle. Analysis of operational problems can be aided through the ability to compare the various acquired and calculated data values. Frequently the standard graphic display of software programs is not

Effects of Fluid Pound on Beam System
by: F. Yavuz, J. Lea, P. Adisoemarta, T. Oetama, J.C. Cox — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


Fluid pound is thought to be a result of the pump hitting the fluid level when the pump is partially full of gas. However gas always is compressed to a value of pressure sufficient to open the traveling valve before the pump hits the fluid. The load on the pump is released very quickly and the pump is traveling faster when fluid pound occurs than at the beginning of the stroke. However, most down hole dynamometer cards do not show compression when fluid pound occurs. Also, the concept that there is fluid pound with gas in the pump at low pressures and gas interference when the pressure seems to be accepted. A model and all formulas for fluid pound and gas interference is presented and programmed into a short wave equation program. All code and formulas are shown. Results of high and low intake pressures on pumping with incomplete fillage are shown on the bottomhole dynamometer card and on the rod string loading. Also, effects of pumping speed and degree of pump fillage are shown on the

Field Study: Verification of Advances in Beam Pumping Diagnostic Software
by: Louis Ray — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


Today’s cutting-edge diagnostic software for beam pumping surveillance, analysis and optimization includes improved methodology based on time-tested techniques and practical new functionality. Specifically, this paper references dynamometer card pattern matching to aid the well analyst, lease operator, or other interested parties in understanding well operating conditions.

This technology has been available since the 1980’s, but it is now enhanced with advanced pattern matching algorithms and better presentation of results to the user. Available new functionality includes diagnostic reporting that produces a collection of outputs, which are the result of a statistical analysis of downhole-card information, calibration or predicted card information, and trended data for each beam well addressed by the diagnostic software. The purpose is to apply logic that an experienced well analyst would use to determine whether each well needs any corrective action. The diagnostic logic can be c

HOW TO MAINTAIN HIGH PRODUCING EFFICIENCY IN SUCKER ROD LIFT OPERATIONS
by: James N. McCoy, Lynn Rowlan, Dieter Becker, A.L. Podio — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


Throughout the world the most common method used to artificially produce wells is through the means of sucker rod lift. Low producing efficiencies caused by incomplete pump fillage is the most common operational problem experienced by these the sucker rod lifted wells. Incomplete pump fillage is the result of having a pump capacity that exceeds the production rate of the well or having poor gas separation at the pump intake and a portion of the pump capacity being lost to gas interference. More efficient operations and lower cost will result, if these wells are operated with a pump filled with liquid. To operate with a full pump requires the elimination of any gas interference in the pump and requires controlling pump run time so the pump displacement will match the inflow of liquid from the reservoir into the wellbore. Periodically the operator must monitor the wells operations to insure that the pump has no mechanical problems and efficient operations are maintained as all the

NEW DYNAMOMETER TECHNOLOGY ALLOWS QUICK SETUP AND EASY OPERATION
by: LeMoyne Boyer, Doneil Dorado, Andy Cordova — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


Dynamometers have been used for many years to analyze beam-pumped wells. The evolution from mechanical systems to modern computerized systems have provided the industry with sophisticated dynamometers for the diagnosis of wells. Typical systems require significant capital outlay and specialized training for proper use; this has limited the use of dynamometers for diagnosing wells. This illustrates a need in the industry for a simple, accurate dynamometer data-gathering tool which is easy to setup and use.

This paper describes a new self-contained system which can record surface and pump cards on a well within minutes of arrival at the well. It automatically calculates inferred production based on the pump card. It also allows the operator to record valve checks, counterbalance, and perform pump leakage calculations without an on-site computer. All data can be brought to the office and transferred to a computer for further analysis if needed.

Preventing Tubing Leaks in the Field "A Reality Check"
by: Fred Newman — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


Tubing leaks due to rod wear and corrosion are common in the oil field and can add significantly to the operating cost of any well. The preferred field applicable approaches to finding production tubing weak spots and leaks vary with different companies and range from pouring paint from a bucket, hydrostatic testing, and electronic inspection of the tubing as it is tripped.

We have taken field data from numerous jobs and explored how each of these testing methods can be improved or enhanced to increase information reliability and to reduce the frequency and cost of well failures.

Caveat: It is not the purpose of this paper to review or judge the attributes of the various techniques and apparatus used in electronic tubing inspection services as the equipment varies in how it works and how it is built. This paper addresses how the on-lease technology is applied over the well and how the results can change based on field applications and interpretations.

Pump Card Analysis Simplified
by: James N. McCoy, Lynn Rowlan, Tony Podio — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


A dynamometer pump card is a plot of the calculated pump loads and pump plunger positions during one complete stroke of the pumping unit. The plot is used to analyze pump performance. The pump card is normally calculated from measured surface polished rod load and position data. Different methods are used to display and plot so-called “Pump Cards”. Sometimes the so-called pump card is actually a plot of sucker rod load and position, or maybe a sinker bar located above the pump. Several advantages exist for plotting the pump card as the load that the pump plunger applies to the sucker rod. First and foremost, the pump plunger card is easier to interpret and shows more mechanical and reservoir information. Visual estimates (high, medium and low) of the pump intake pressure are obvious from the pump card. Also, the zero load line on the pump plunger card indicates the quality and accuracy of the surface load and position measurements and computations. Examples are shown of the pu

Using Microsoft Excel to Plot and Monitor Downhole Failures
by: Scott Long — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


The purpose of this paper is to provide an engineering tool to the Oil and Gas Industry that will plot and monitor downhole failures by type of failure (Tubing Leaks, Rod Parts and Pump Repairs), by depth of failure and by date of failure.

Utilizing Microsoft Excel Software to build this engineering tool provides to the user spreadsheet software that is utilized throughout the Oil and Gas Industry, easily electronically transported and does not require excessive technical support.

Use of this engineering tool will provide you the opportunity to visually analysis the following:
1. Relationships between both like and unlike downhole failures,
2. Determine if failure frequencies are increasing or decreasing
3. Determine if the failure mode is load or buckling related

Use of this engineering tool with accurate failure data will assist you in visualizing downhole failures, reducing downhole failures and reducing operating expenses.

Well Testing Using a Rod Pump Controller
by: Boyer, Lemoyne; Cordova, Andy; Roberson, Alan — Added 9/19/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis


Well tests are crucial to managing rod pumped wells, and operators struggle to get tests as frequently as they desire. A method has been developed using the down hole pump card generated by a Rod Pump Controller that has proven to be accurate and reliable. The method will be explained and data will be presented from field tests showing actual well tests compared to the well test from the Rod Pump Controller.